A branch of linguistics that studies the various forms and structure of words is called morphology. It is one of the major elements of grammar and is traditionally applied to internal structure of words while syntax refers to the structure of a sentence. These two terms are similar in that they both show how language is constructed and understood.
Morphology is best defined as the study of morphemes, which are the smallest forms of English which still retain any meaning. This includes both parts of and complete words, suffixes and prefixes, articles, nouns, conjunctions; any bit of speech that cannot be made smaller without changing meaning or losing meaning completely is a morpheme.
“Formulation” is not a morpheme but “form” is. “Zoology” is not a morpheme but “zoo” is. “Flexible” is not a morpheme but “flex” is.
Morpheme Combination Examples
“Aqua” means “water.” Aquamarine, aquatic, aquarium
“Port” means “to carry.” Portal, export, transport
“Pre-” means “before.” Prepare, predetermine, preview
“Bi-” means “two.” Binary, bicycle, bi-weekly
“-tude” means “condition of.” Attitude, solitude, multitude
“-ment” mean “state of” or “act.” Fulfillment, annulment, payment
In English syntax, everything has its place within the sentence. The most common order in a sentence is subject, verb, object. Adverbs, adjectives, modifiers all have syntax requirements. While rules may seem pesky, syntax is one of the ways to make sure a reader can understand what is written.
“Walking barn the toward out of was little spotted coming me the pony.”
“The little spotted pony was walking out of the barn, coming toward me.”
Much better thanks to some attention to syntax.